The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order
establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and
the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to
themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a
of justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this
Section 1. The Philippines comprises all the territory ceded to the
States by the Treaty of Paris concluded between the United States and
on the tenth day of December, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, the
which are set forth in Article III of said treaty, together with all
islands embraced in the treaty concluded at Washington between the
States and Spain on the seventh day of November, nineteen hundred, and
the treaty concluded between the United States and Great Britain on the
second day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty, and all territory
which the present Government of the Philippine Islands exercises
Section 1. The Philippines, is a republican state. Sovereignty resides
in the people and all government authority emanates from them.
Section 2. The defense of the State is a prime duty of government, and
in the fulfillment of this duty all citizens may be required by law to
render personal military or civil service.
Section 3. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national
and adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as
of the law of the Nation.
Section 4. The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the
youth for civic efficiency should receive the aid and support of the
Section 5. The promotion of social justice to insure the well-being and
economic security of all the people should be the concern of the State.cralaw
Section 1. (1) No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or
without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal
of the laws.
(2) Private property shall not be taken for public use without just
(3) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be
and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, to be determined
the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the
and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
(4) The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits
by law shall not be impaired.
(5) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable
except upon lawful order of the court or when public safety and order
(6) The right to form associations or societies for purposes not
to law shall not be abridged.
(7) No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or
the free exercise thereof, and the free exercise and enjoyment of
profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall
be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of
or political rights.
(8) No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, or of the
or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the
for redress of grievances.
(9) No law granting a title of nobility shall be enacted, and no person
holding any office of profit shall, without the consent of the Congress
of the Philippines, accept any present, emolument, office, or title of
any kind whatever from any foreign state.
(10) No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.
(11) No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
(12) No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll
(13) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a
for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
(14) The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended
except in cases of invasion, insurrection, or rebellion, when the
safety requires it, in any of which events the same may be suspended
during such period the necessity for such suspension shall exist.
(15) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without
process of law.
(16) All persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient
except those charged with capital offenses when evidence of guilt is
Excessive bail shall not be required.
(17) In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall be presumed to be
until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by
himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the
against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses
to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of
in his behalf.
(18) No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
(19) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel and unusual
(20) No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the
offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or
acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution
the same act.
(21) Free access to the courts shall not be denied to any person by
Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Those who are citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the
of this Constitution.
Those born in the Philippine Islands of foreign parents who, before the
adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office in the
Those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines.
Those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and, upon reaching
the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship.
Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
Section 2. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the
provided by law.
Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by male citizens of the
not otherwise disqualified by law, who are twenty-one years of age or
and are able to read and write, and who shall have resided in the
for one year and in the municipality wherein they propose to vote for
least six months preceding the election. The National Assembly shall
the right of suffrage to women, if in a plebiscite which shall be held
for that purpose within two years after the adoption of this
not less than three hundred thousand women possessing the necessary
shall vote affirmatively on the question.
Section 1. The Legislative power shall be vested in a Congress of the
which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
Section 2. The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who
be chosen at large by the qualified electors of the Philippines, as may
be provided by law.
Section 3. The term of office of Senators shall be six years and shall
begin on the thirtieth day of December next following their election.
first Senators elected under this Constitution shall, in the manner
by law, be divided equally into three groups, the Senators of the first
group, to serve for a term of six years; those of the second group, for
four years; and those of the third group, for two years.
Section 4. No person shall be a Senator unless he be a natural born
of the Philippines and, at the time of his election, is at least
years of age, a qualified elector, and a resident of the Philippines
not less than two years immediately prior to his election.
Section 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more
one hundred and twenty Members who shall be apportioned among the
provinces as nearly as may be accorded to the number of their
inhabitants, but each province shall have at least one Member. The
shall by law make an apportionment within three years after the return
of every enumeration, and not otherwise. Until such apportionment shall
have been made, the House of Representatives shall have the same number
of Members as that fixed by law for the National Assembly, who shall be
elected by the qualified electors from the present Assembly districts.
Each representative district shall comprise, as far as practicable,
and compact territory.
Section 6. The term of office of the Members of the House of
shall be four years and shall begin on the thirtieth day of December
following their election.
Section 7. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives
unless he be a natural born citizen of the Philippines, and, at the
of his election, is at least twenty-five years of age, a qualified
and a resident of the province in which he is chosen for not less than
one year immediately prior to his election.
Section 8. (1) Elections for Senators and Members of the House of
shall be held in the manner and on the dates fixed by law.
(2) In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of
a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner
by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus
elected shall serve only for the unexpired term.
Section 9. The Congress shall convene in regular session once every
on the fourth Monday of January, unless a different date is fixed by
It may be called in special session at any time by the President to
general legislation or only such subjects as he may designate. No
session shall continue longer than thirty days and no regular session
than one hundred days, exclusive of Sundays.
Section 10. (1) The Senate shall elect its President and the House of
Each House shall choose such other officers as may be required.
(2) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business,
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the
of absent Members in such manner and under such penalties as such House
(3) Each House may determine the rule of its proceedings, punish its
for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all
its Members, expel a Member.
(4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in its judgment
secrecy; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of
one-fifth of the Members present, be entered into the Journal.
(5) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any
place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section 11. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall have an
Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the
election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each
Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom
be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice,
and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of
as the case may be, who shall be chosen by each House, three upon
of the party having the largest number of votes and three of the party
having the second largest numbers of votes therein. The senior Justice
in each Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.
Section 12. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of
Senators and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by
each House, respectively, on the basis of proportional representation
the political parties therein. The president of the Senate shall be the
Chairman ex officio of the Commission, but shall not vote
in case of tie.
Section 13. The Electoral Tribunal and the Commission on Appointments
be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of
shall have been organized with the election of their President and
respectively. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the
Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of
Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred
Section 14. The Senators and the Members of the House of
shall, unless otherwise provided by law, receive an annual compensation
of seven thousand two hundred pesos each, including per diems and other
emoluments or allowances and exclusive only of traveling expenses to
from their respective districts in the case of Members of the House of
Representatives, and to an from their places of residence in the case
Senators, when attending sessions of the Congress. No increase in said
compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full
of all the Members of the Senate and of the House of Representatives
such increase. Until otherwise provided by law, the President of the
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall each receive an
compensation of sixteen thousand pesos.
Section 15. The Senators and Members of the House of Representatives
in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be
from arrest during their attendance at the session of the Congress, and
in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate
they shall not be questioned in any other place.
Section 16. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may
any other office or employment in the government without forfeiting his
seat, nor shall any Senator or Member of the House of Representatives,
during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil
which may have been created or the emoluments whereof shall have been
while he was a Member of the Congress.
Section 17. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall
directly or indirectly be financially interested in any contract with
government or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof, or in any
or special privilege granted by the Congress during his term of office.
He shall not appear as counsel before the Electoral Tribunals or before
any court in any civil case wherein the Government or any subdivision
instrumentality thereof is the adverse party, or in any criminal case
an officer or employee of the government is accused of an offense
in relation to his office, or collect any fee for his appearance in any
administrative proceedings; or accept employment to intervene in any
or matter where he may be called upon to act on account of his office.
No Member of the Commission on Appointments shall appear as counsel
any court inferior to a collegiate court of appellate jurisdiction.
Section 18. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills
increase of the public debt, bills of local application, and private
shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the
may propose or concur with amendments.
Section 19. (1) The President shall submit within fifteen days of the
of each regular session of the Congress a budget of receipts and
which shall be the basis of the general appropriations bill. The
may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for
operation of the Government as specified in the Budget, except the
for the Congress and the Judicial Department. The form of the Budget
the information that it should contain shall be prescribed by law.
(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general
bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation
and any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation
Section 20. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it
a law, be presented to the President. If he approves the same, he shall
sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections to the
where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large on its
and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration,
of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall
be sent together, with the objections, to the House by which it shall
be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of
House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the Members
for and against shall be entered on its Journal. If any bill shall not
be returned by the President as herein provided within twenty days
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall
a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by
prevent its return, in which case it shall become a law unless vetoed
the President within thirty days after adjournment.
(2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or
of an appropriation bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or
to which he does not object. When a provision of an appropriation bill
affects one or more items of the same, the President cannot veto the
without at the same time, vetoing the particular item or items to which
it relates. The item or items objected to shall not take effect except
in the manner heretofore provided as to bills returned to the Congress
without the approval of the President. If the veto refers to a bill or
any item of an appropriation bill which appropriates a sum in excess of
ten per centum of the total amount voted in the appropriation bill for
the general expenses of the Government for the preceding year, or if it
should refer to a bill authorizing an increase of the public debt, the
same shall not become a law unless approved by three-fourths of all the
Members of each House.
(3) The President shall have the power to veto any separate item or
in a revenue of tariff bill, and the item or items shall not take
except in the manner provided as to bills vetoed by the President.
Section 21. (1) No bill which may be enacted into law shall embrace
than one subject which shall be expressed in the title of the bill.
(2) No bill shall be passed by either House unless it shall have been
and copies thereof in its final form furnished its Members at least
calendar days prior to its passage, except when the President shall
certified to the necessity of its immediate enactment. Upon the last
of a bill no amendment thereof shall be allowed, and the question upon
its passage shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and
entered on the Journal.
Section 22. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform.
(2) The Congress may by law authorize the President, subject to such
and restrictions as it may impose, to fix, within specified limits,
rates, import or export quotas, and tonnage and wharfage dues.
(3) Cemeteries, churches, and parsonages or convents appurtenant
and all lands, buildings, and improvements used exclusively for
charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.
Section 23. (1) All money collected on any tax levied for a special
shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only.
If the purpose for which a special fund was crated has been fulfilled
abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general
of the Government.
(2) No money shall be paid out of Treasury except in pursuance of an
made by law.
(3) No public money, or property shall ever be appropriated, applied,
used, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any
church, denomination, sectarian institution or system of religion, for
the use, benefit, or support of any priest, preacher, ministers, or
religious teacher or dignitary as such except when such priest,
minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces or to any penal
institution, orphanage or leprosarium.
Section 24. The heads of departments upon their own initiative or upon
the request of either House may appear before and be heard by such
on any matter pertaining to their departments, unless the public
shall require otherwise and the President shall so state in writing.
Section 25. The Congress, shall, with the concurrence of two-thirds of
all the Members of each House, have the sole power to declare war.
Section 26. In times of war and other national emergency the Congress
by law authorize the President, for a limited period, and subject to
restrictions as it may prescribe, to promulgate rules and regulations
carry out a declared national policy.
Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the
Section 2. The President shall hold his office during a term of four
and together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term, shall be
elected by direct vote of the people. The returns of every election for
President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers
of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the seat of the
Government, directed to the President of the Senate, who shall, in the
presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives, open all the
and the votes shall then be counted. The person respectively having the
highest number of votes for President and Vice-President shall be
elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and the highest
of votes for their office, one of them shall be chosen President or
as the case may be, by a majority vote of the Members of the Congress
joint session assembled.
Section 3. No person may be elected to the office of the President or
unless he is a natural born citizen of the Philippines, a qualified
forty years of age or over, and has been a resident of the Philippines
for at least ten years immediately preceding the election.
Section 4. Elections for President and Vice-President shall be held
every four years on a date to be fixed by law.
The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at noon on the
thirtieth day of December following the expiration of four years after
their election, and the terms of their successors shall begin from such
Section 5. No person shall serve as President for more than eight
years. The period of such service shall be counted from the date he
have commenced to act as President. Voluntary renunciation of the
for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in
continuity of the service of the incumbent for the full term for which
he was elected.
Section 6. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
the President-elect shall have died, the Vice-President-elect shall
President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time
for the beginning of his term or if the President shall have failed to
qualify, then the Vice-President shall act as President until a
shall have qualified, and the Congress may by law provide for the case
wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice-President-elect shall have
qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in
which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act
until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.
Section 7. Before he enters on the execution of his office, the
shall take the following oath or affirmation :chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and
fulfill my duties as President of the Philippines, preserve and defend
its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and
myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God."
case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted)
Section 8. In the event of the removal of the President from office, or
his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties
of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and
Congress shall by law provide for the case of removal, death,
or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what
officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act
until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
Section 9. The President shall have an official residence and receive a
compensation to be ascertained by law which shall be neither increased
nor diminished during the period of which he shall have been elected,
he shall not receive within the period any other emolument from the
or any of its subdivisions or instrumentalities. Until the Congress
provide otherwise, the President shall receive an annual salary of
thousand pesos. The Vice-President, when not acting as President, shall
receive an annual compensation of fifteen thousand pesos until
provided by law.
Section 10. (1) The President shall have control of all executive
bureaus or offices, exercise general provision over all local
as may be provided by law, and take care that the laws be faithfully
(2) The President shall be commander-in-chief of all armed forces of
Philippines, and, whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such
forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion, insurrection,
or rebellion. In case of invasion, insurrection, or rebellion or
danger thereof, when the public safety requires it, he may suspend the
privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, or place the Philippines or any
part thereof under Martial Law.
(3) The President shall nominate and with the consent of the Commission
on Appointments, shall appoint the heads of the executive departments
bureaus, officers of the Army from the rank of colonel, of the Navy and
Air Forces from the rank of captain or commander, and all other
of the Government whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided
for, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint; but the
may by law vest the appointment of inferior officers, in the President
alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments.
(4) The President shall have the power to make appointments during the
recess of the Congress, but such appointments shall be effective only
disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next
of the Congress.
(5) The President shall from time to time give to the Congress
on the state of the Nation, and recommend to its consideration such
as he shall judge necessary and expedient.
(6) The President shall have the power to grant reprieves,
and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction, for all
expenses except in case of impeachment, upon such conditions and with
restrictions and limitations as he may deem proper to impose. He shall
have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of the Congress.
(7) The President shall have the power, with the concurrence of
of all the Members of the Senate to make treaties, and with the consent
of the Commission on Appointments, he shall appoint ambassadors, other
public ministers, and consuls. He shall receive ambassadors and other
ministers duly accredited to the Government of the Philippines.
Section 11. (1) The executive departments of the present Government of
the Philippine Islands shall continue as now authorized by law until
Congress shall provide otherwise.
(2) The heads of the departments and chiefs of bureaus or offices and
assistants shall not, during their continuance in office, engage in the
practice of any profession, or intervene, directly or indirectly, in
management or control of any private enterprise which in any way may be
affected by the functions of their office; nor shall they, directly or
indirectly, be financially interested in any contract with the
or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof.
(3) The President may appoint the Vice-President as a member of his
and also as head of an executive department.
Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and
in such inferior courts as may be established by law.
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe and
the jurisdiction of various courts, but may not deprive the Supreme
of its original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other
ministers, and consuls, nor of its jurisdiction to review, revise,
modify, or affirm on appeal, certiorari, or writ of error, as the law
the rules of court may provide, final judgments and decrees of inferior
All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty,
ordinance, or executive order or regulation is in question.
All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or
or any penalty imposed in relation thereto.
All cases in which the jurisdiction of any trial court is in issue.
All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is death or life
All cases in which an error or question of law is involved.
Section 3. Until the Congress shall provide otherwise the Supreme Court
shall have such original and appellate jurisdiction as may be possessed
and exercised by the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands at the
of the adoption of this Constitution. The original jurisdiction of the
Supreme Court shall include all cases affecting ambassadors, other
ministers, and consuls.
Section 4. The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and
Associate Justices and may sit either en banc or in two divisions
otherwise provided by law.
Section 5. The Members of the Supreme Court and all judges of inferior
courts shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the
Section 6. No person may be appointed Member of the Supreme Court
he has been five years a citizen of the Philippines, is at least forty
years of age, and hasfor ten years or more been a judge of a court of
or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.
Section 7. No judge appointed for a particular district shall be
or transferred to another district without the approval of the Supreme
Court. The Congress shall by law determine the residence of judges of
Section 8. The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of
inferior courts, but no person may be appointed judge of any such
unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and has been admitted to the
practice of law in the Philippines.
Section 9. The Members of the Supreme Court and all judges of inferior
courts shall hold office during good behavior, until they reach the age
of seventy years, or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of
office. They shall receive such compensation as may be fixed by law,
shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Until the
shall provide otherwise, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall
an annual compensation of sixteen thousand pesos, and each Associate
fifteen thousand pesos.
Section 10. All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty or
shall be heard and decided by the Supreme Court en banc, and no treaty
or law may be declared unconstitutional without the concurrence of
of all the Members of the Court.
Section 11. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted
to it for decision shall be reached in consultation before the case is
assigned to a Justice for a writing of the opinion of the Court. Any
dissenting from a decision shall state the reasons for his dissent.
Section 12. No decision shall be rendered by any court of record
expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on
it is based.
Section 13. The Supreme Court shall have the power to promulgate rules
concerning pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, and the
to the practice of law. Said rules shall be uniform for all courts of
same grade and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive
The existing laws on pleading, practice, and procedure are hereby
as statutes, and are declared Rules of Courts, subject to the power of
the Supreme Court to alter and modify the same. The Congress shall have
the power to repeal, alter or supplement the rules concerning pleading,
practice, and procedure, and the admission to the practice of law in
Section 1. The President, the Vice-President, the Justices of the
Court, and the Auditor General, shall be removed from office on
for any conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason,
bribery, or other high crimes.
Section 2. The House of Representatives by a vote of two-thirds of all
its Members, shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachment.
When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or
When the President of the Philippines is on trial, the Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court shall preside. No person shall be convicted without
concurrence of three-fourths of all the Members of the Senate.
Section 4. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further
to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any
of honor, trust, or profit under the Government of the Philippines, but
the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
trial, and punishment, according to law.
Section 1. There shall be an independent Commission on Elections
of a Chairman and two other Members to be appointed by the President
the consent of the Commission on Appointments, who shall hold office
a term of nine years and may not be reappointed. Of the Members of the
Commission first appointed, one shall hold office for nine years,
for six years, and the third for three years. The Chairman and the
Members of the Commission on Elections may be removed from office only
by impeachment in the manner provided in this Constitution.
Until the Congress shall provide otherwise the Chairman of the
shall receive an annual salary of twelve thousand pesos, and the other
Members, ten thousand pesos each. Their salaries shall be neither
nor diminished during their term of office.
Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall have exclusive charge of
enforcement and administration of all laws relative to the conduct of
and shall exercise all other functions which may be conferred upon it
law. It shall decide, save those involving the right to vote, all
questions affecting elections, including the determination of the
and location of polling places, and the appointment of election
and of other election officials. All law enforcement agencies and
of the Government, when so required by the Commission, shall act as its
deputies for the purpose of insuring free, orderly, and honest
The decisions, orders, and rulings of the Commission shall be subject
review by the Supreme Court.
No pardon, parole, or suspension of sentence for the violation of any
law may be granted without the favorable recommendation of the
Section 3. The Chairman and Members of the Commission on Elections
not, during their continuance in office, engage in the practice of any
profession, or intervene, directly or indirectly, in the management or
control of any private enterprise which in any way may be affected by
functions of their office; nor shall they, directly or indirectly, be
interested in any contract with the Government or any subdivision or
Section 4. The Commission on Elections shall submit to the President
the Congress, following each election, a report on the manner in which
such election was conducted.
Section 1. There shall be a General Auditing Office under the direction
and control of an Auditor General, who shall hold office for a term of
ten years and may not be reappointed. The Auditor General shall be
by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments,
shall receive an annual compensation to be fixed by law which shall not
be diminished during his continuance in office. Until the Congress
provide otherwise, the Auditor General shall receive an annual
of twelve thousand pesos.
Section 2. The Auditor General shall examine, audit, and settle all
pertaining to the revenues and receipts from whatever source, including
trust funds derived from bond issues; and audit, in accordance with law
and administrative regulations, all expenditures of funds or property
or held in trust by the Government or the provinces or municipalities
He shall keep the general accounts of the Government and preserve the
pertaining thereto. It shall be the duty of the Auditor General to
the attention of the proper administrative officer expenditures of
or property which, in his opinion, are irregular, unnecessary,
or extravagant. He shall also perform such other functions as may be
Section 3. The decisions of the Auditor General shall be rendered
the time fixed by law, and the same may be appealed to the President
action shall be final. When the aggrieved party is a private person or
entity, an appeal from the decision of the Auditor General may be taken
directly to a court of record in the manner provided by law.
Section 4. The Auditor General shall submit to the President and the
an annual report covering the financial condition and operations of the
Government, and such other reports as may be required.
Section 1. A Civil Service embracing all branches and subdivision of
Government shall be provided by law. Appointments in the Civil Service,
except as to those which are policy-determining, primarily confidential
or highly technical in nature, shall be made only according to merit
fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive
Section 2. Officers and employees in the Civil Service, including
of the armed forces, shall not engage directly or indirectly in
political activities or take part in any election except to vote.
Section 3. No officer or employee of the government shall receive
or double compensation unless specifically authorized by law.
Section 4. No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be removed
or suspended except for cause as provided by law.
and Utilization of Natural Resources
Section 1. All agricultural timber, and mineral lands of the public
waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces
potential energy and other natural resources of the Philippines belong
to the State, and their disposition, exploitation, development, or
shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or
at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such
subject to any existing right, grant, lease, or concession at the time
of the inauguration of the Government established under this
Natural resources, with the exception of public agricultural land,
not be alienated, and no license, concession, or lease for the
development, or utilization of any of the natural resources shall be
for a period exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for another
years, except as to water rights for irrigation, water supply,
or industrial uses other than the development of water power, in which
cases beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant.
Section 2. No private corporation or association may acquire, lease, or
hold public agricultural lands in excess of one thousand and twenty
hectares, nor may any individual acquire such lands by purchase in
of one hundred and forty four hectares, or by lease in excess of one
and twenty four hectares, or by homestead in excess of twenty-four
Lands adapted to grazing, not exceeding two thousand hectares, may be
to an individual, private corporation, or association.
Section 3. The Congress may determine by law the size of private
land which individuals, corporations, or associations may acquire and
subject to rights existing prior to the enactment of such law.
Section 4. The Congress may authorize, upon payment of just
the expropriation of lands to be subdivided into small lots and
at cost to individuals.
Section 5. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private
land shall be transferred or assigned except to individuals,
or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain
in the Philippines.
Section 6. The State may, in the interest of national welfare and
establish and operate industries and means of transportation and
and upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership
and other private enterprise to be operated by the Government.
Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue,
a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and
Section 2. All public officers and members of the armed forces shall
an oath to support and defend the Constitution.
Section 3. The Congress shall take steps toward the development and
of a common national language based on one of the existing native
Until otherwise provided by law, English and Spanish shall continue as
Section 4. The State shall promote scientific research and invention.
and letters shall be under its patronage. The exclusive right to
and inventions shall be secured to authors and inventors for a limited
Section 5. All educational institutions shall be under the supervision
of and subject to regulation by the State. The Government shall
and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and
provide at least free public primary instruction, and citizenship
to adult citizens. All schools shall aim to develop moral character,
discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency, and to teach
duties of citizenship. Optional religious instruction shall be
in the public schools as now authorized by law. Universities
by the State shall enjoy academic freedom. The State shall create
in arts, science, and letters for specially gifted citizens.
Section 6. The State shall afford protection to labor, especially to
women, and minors, and shall regulate the relations between the
and tenant, and between labor and capital in industry and in
The State may provide for compulsory arbitration.
Section 7. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for
formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations, unless
such corporations are owned and controlled by the Government or any
or instrumentality thereof.
Section 8. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of
for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to
of the Philippines or to corporations or other entities organized under
the laws of the Philippines sixty per centum of the capital of which is
owned by citizens of the Philippines, nor shall such franchise,
or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than
fifty years. No franchise or right shall be granted to any individual,
firm, or corporation, except under the condition that it shall be
to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the public
Section 9. The Government shall organize and maintain a national police
force to preserve public order and enforce the law.cralaw
Section 10. This Constitution shall be officially promulgated in
and Spanish, but in case of conflict the English text shall prevail.
Section 1. The Congress in joint session assembled, by a vote of
of all the Members of the Senate and of the House of Representatives
separately, may propose amendments to this Constitution or call a
for that purpose. Such amendments shall be valid as part of this
when approved by a majority of the votes cast at an election at which
amendments are submitted to the people for their ratification.
Section 1. The first election of the officers provided in this
and the inauguration of the Government of the Commonwealth of the
shall take place as provided in Public Act Numbered One hundred and
of the Congress of the United States, approved March twenty-four,
hundred and thirty four.
Section 2. All laws of the Philippine Islands shall continue in force
the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; thereafter,
laws shall remain operative, unless inconsistent with this
until amended, altered, modified, or repealed by the Congress of the
and all references in such laws to the Government or officials of the
Islands shall be construed, insofar as applicable, to refer to the
and corresponding officials under this Constitution.cralaw
Section 3. All courts existing at the time of the adoption of this
shall continue and exercise their jurisdiction, until otherwise
by law in accordance with this Constitution, and all cases, civil and
pending in said courts, shall be heard, tried, and determined under the
laws then in force.cralaw
Section 4. All officers and employees in the existing Government of the
Philippine Islands shall continue in office until the Congress shall
otherwise, but all officers whose appointments are by this Constitution
vested in the President shall, vacate their respective offices upon the
appointment and qualification of their successors, if such appointment
is made within a period of one year from the date of the inauguration
the Commonwealth of the Philippines.cralaw
Section 5. The Members of the House of Representatives for the Mountain
Province shall be elected as may be provided by law. The voters of
and municipal districts formerly belonging to a special province and
forming part of regular provinces shall vote in the election for
of the House of Representatives in such districts as may be provided by
Section 6. The provisions of this Constitution, except those contained
in this article and in Article V, and those which refer to the election
and qualifications of officers to be elected under this Constitution,
not take effect until the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the
Provisions Effective upon the Proclamation
the Independence of the Philippines
Section. 1. Upon the proclamation of the President of the United States
recognizing the independence of the Philippines:chanroblesvirtuall
The property rights of the United States and the Philippines shall be
adjusted and settled, and all existing property rights of citizens or
of the United States shall be acknowledged, respected, and safeguarded
to the same extent as property rights of the Philippines.
The officials elected and serving under this Constitution shall be
officers of the free and independent Government of the Philippines and
qualified to function in all respects as if elected directly under such
Government, and shall serve their full terms of office as prescribed in
The debts and liabilities of the Philippines, its provinces, cities,
and instrumentalities, which shall be valid and subsisting at the time
of the final and complete withdrawal of the sovereignty of the United
shall be assumed by the free and independent Government of the
and where bonds have been issued under authority of an Act of Congress
of the United States by the Philippine Islands, or any province, city
municipality therein, the Government of the Philippines will make
provision for the necessary funds for the payment of interest and
and such obligations shall be a first lien on all taxes collected.cralaw
The Government of the Philippines will assume all continuing
of the United States under the Treaty of Peace with Spain ceding the
Islands to the United States.cralaw
The Government of the Philippines will embody the foregoing provisions
of this article (except subsection (2)) in a treaty with the United
Commonwealth and the Republic
Section. 1. The government established by this Constitution shall be
as the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Upon the final and complete
of the sovereignty of the United States and the proclamation of
independence, the Commonwealth of the Philippines shall thenceforth be
known as the Republic of the Philippines.
APPENDED TO THE 1935 CONSTITUTION
Notwithstanding the provisions of section one, Article Thirteen, and
eight, Article Fourteen, of the foregoing Constitution, during the
of the Executive Agreement entered into by the President of the
with the President of the United States on the fourth of July, nineteen
hundred and forty-six, pursuant to the provisions of Commonwealth Act
Seven hundred and thirty-three, but in no case to extend beyond the
of July, nineteen hundred and seventy-four, the disposition,
development, and utilization of all agricultural, timber, and mineral
of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other
oils, all forces of potential energy, and other natural resources of
Philippines, and the operation of public utilities, if open to any
be open to citizens of the United States and to all forms of business
owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by citizens of the United
States in the same manner as to, and under the same conditions imposed
upon, citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations owned
or controlled by citizens of the Philippines.
1935 Constitution was ratified on May 14, 1935].