We, the sovereign
Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine
in order to establish a government that shall embody our ideals,
the general welfare, conserve and develop the patrimony of our Nation,
and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of democracy
a regime of justice, peace, liberty, and equality, do ordain and
Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago,
with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all the other
belonging to the Philippines by historic or legal title, including the
territorial sea, the air space, the subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular
and the submarine areas over which the Philippines has sovereignty or
The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the
irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal
waters of the Philippines.
of Principles and State Policies
Section 1. The Philippines is a republican state. Sovereignty resides
the people and all government authority emanates from them.
Section 2. The defense of the State is the prime duty of government,
in the fulfillment of this duty all citizens may be required by law to
render personal military or civil service.
Section 3. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national
adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part
the law of the land, and adheres to the policy of peace, equality,
freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Section 4. The State shall strengthen the family as a basic social
The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for
efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the aid
and support of the government.
Section 5. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in
and shall promote their physical, intellectual and social well-being.
Section 6. The State shall promote social justice to ensure the
welfare, and security of all the people. Towards this end, the State
regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, enjoyment, and disposition of
private property, and equitably diffuse property ownership and profits.
Section 7. The State shall establish, maintain, and ensure adequate
services in the field of education, health, housing, employment,
and social security to guarantee the enjoyment of the people of a
standard of living.
Section 8. Civilian authority is at all times supreme over the military.
Section 9. The State shall afford protection to labor, promote full
and equality in employment, ensure equal work opportunities regardless
of sex, race, or creed, and regulate the relation between workers and
The State shall assure the rights of workers to self-organization,
bargaining, security of tenure, and just and humane conditions of work.
The State may provide for compulsory arbitration.
Section 10. The State shall guarantee and promote the autonomy of local
government units, especially the barrio, to ensure their fullest
as self-reliant communities.
Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption
Those whose fathers and mothers are citizens of the Philippines.cralaw
Those who elect Philippine citizenship pursuant to the provisions of
Constitution of nineteen hundred and thirty-five.cralaw
Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
Section 2. A female citizen of the Philippines who marries an alien
her Philippine citizenship, unless by her act or omission she is
under the law, to have renounced her citizenship
Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the
provided by law.
Section 4. A natural-born citizen is one who is a citizen of the
from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect his
Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property
due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection
of the laws.
Section 2. Private property shall not be taken for public use without
Section 3. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of
nature and whatever purpose shall not be violated, and no search
or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be
by the judge, or such other responsible officer as maybe authorized by
law, after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and
the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to
be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Section 4. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be
inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety
and order require otherwise.
(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section
shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.cralaw
Section 5. The liberty of abode and of travel shall not be impaired
upon lawful order of the court, or when necessary in the interest of
security, public safety, or public health.
Section 6. The right of the people to information on matters of public
concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to
and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions,
be afforded the citizen subject to such limitations as may be provided
Section 7. The right to form associations or societies for purposes not
contrary to the law shall not be abridged.
Section 8. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and
of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or
shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the
of civil or political rights.
Section 9. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, or
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition
government for redress of grievances.
Section 10. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be
Section 11. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be
Section 12. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
Section 13. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a
Section 14. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as
a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly
Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be
except in cases of invasion, insurrection, or rebellion, or imminent
thereof, when the public safety requires it.
Section 16. All persons, shall have the right to a speedy disposition
their cases in all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
Section 17. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense
due process of law.
Section 18. All persons, except those charged with capital offenses
evidence of guilt is strong shall, before conviction, be bailable by
sureties. Excessive bail shall not be required.
Section 19. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed
innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be
heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of
the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public
to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to
the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his
However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the
of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure
to appear is unjustified.
Section 20. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against
Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall
the right to remain silent and to counsel, and to be informed of such
No force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which
the free will shall be used against him. Any confession obtained in
of this section shall be inadmissible in evidence.
Section 21. Excessive fines shall not be imposed nor cruel or unusual
Section 22. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for
the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance,
or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution
for the same act.
Section 23. Free access to the courts shall not be denied to any person
by reason of poverty.
and Obligations of Citizens
Section 1. It shall be the duty of the citizen to be loyal to the
and to honor the Philippine flag, to defend the State and contribute to
its development and welfare, to uphold the Constitution and obey the
and to cooperate with the duly constituted authorities in the
and preservation of a just and orderly society
Section 2. The rights of the individual impose upon him the correlative
duty to exercise them responsibly and with due regard for the rights of
Section 3. It shall be the duty of every citizen to engage in gainful
to assure himself and his family a life worthy of human dignity.
Section 4. It shall be the obligation of every citizen qualified to
to register and cast his vote.
Section 1. Suffrage shall be exercised by citizens of the Philippines
otherwise disqualified by law, who are eighteen years of age or over
who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year and in
the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six months
the election. No literacy, property or other substantive requirement
be imposed on the exercise of, suffrage. The Batasang Pambansa shall
a system for the purpose of securing the secrecy and sanctity of the
President and Vice-President
Section 1. The President shall be the head of state and chief executive
of the Republic of the Philippines.
Section 2. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same
and term of office as the President and may be removed from office in
same manner as the President as provided in Article XIII, Section 2 of
The Vice-President may be appointed as a member of the Cabinet and may
be nominated and elected as Prime Minister
The Vice-President shall be elected with and in the same manner as the
The President shall be elected from among the Members of the National
by a majority vote of all its Members for a term of six years from the
date he takes his oath of office, which shall not be later than three
after the proclamation of the National Assembly, nor in any case
than the expiration of the term of his predecessor. Upon taking his
of office, the President shall cease to be a Member of the National
and of any political party. He shall be ineligible to hold any other
office during his term.
Section 3. No person may be elected President unless he is at least
years of age at the day of his election as President, and a resident of
the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding his
However, if no Member of the National Assembly is qualified or none of
those qualified is a candidate for President, any Member thereof may be
Section 4. (1) The President shall have an official residence and shall
receive a compensation to be fixed by law, which shall not be increased
or decreased during his term of office. He shall not receive during his
tenure any other emolument from the government or any other source.
the National Assembly shall provide otherwise, the President shall
an annual salary of one hundred thousand pesos.
(2) The President shall not during his tenure, hold any appointive
practice any profession, participate directly or indirectly in the
of any business, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in
any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by,
the government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof,
including government-owned or controlled corporations.cralaw
Section 5. In case of permanent disability, death, removal from office,
or resignation of the President, the Speaker of the National Assembly
act as President until a successor has been elected for the unexpired
of the term of the President.
Section 6. The President shall have the following duties and functions:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Address the National Assembly at the opening of its regular session.
Proclaim the election of the Prime Minister.cralaw
Dissolve the National Assembly and call for a general election as
Accept the resignation of the Cabinet as provided herein.cralaw
Attest to the appointment or cessation from office of Members of the
and of other officers as may be provided by law.cralaw
Appoint all officers and employees in his office in accordance with the
Civil Service Law.cralaw
Perform such other duties and functions of State as may be provided by
Section 7. The President shall be immune from suit during his tenure.
Section 1. The Legislative power shall be vested in a National Assembly.
Section 2. The National Assembly shall be composed of as many Members
may be provided by law to be appointed among the provinces,
districts, and cities in accordance with the number of their respective
inhabitants and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio. Each
shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact, and
territory. Representative districts or provinces already created or
at the time of the ratification of this Constitution shall have at
one Member each.
Section 3. (1) The Members of the National Assembly shall be elected by
the qualified electors in their respective districts for a term of six
years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on
thirtieth day of June next following their election.
(2) In case the National Assembly is dissolved, the newly elected
shall serve the unexpired portion of the term from the time the Prime
convenes the Assembly, which shall not be later than thirty days
following the elections.cralaw
Section 4. No person shall be a Member of the National Assembly unless
he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the
election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write,
a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a
resident thereon for a period of not less than one year immediately
the day of the election.
Section 5. (1) Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election
Members of the National Assembly shall be held on the second Monday of
May every six years thereafter.
(2) In case a vacancy arises in the National Assembly one year or more
before a regular election, the Commission on Elections shall call a
election to be held within sixty days after the vacancy occurs.cralaw
Section 6. The National Assembly shall convene once every year on the
Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is
by law, and shall continue to be in session until thirty days before
opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays,
legal holidays. It may recess for periods not exceeding thirty days
and not more than ninety days during the year. However, it may be
to session at any time by the Prime Minister to consider such subjects
or legislation as he may designate.
Section 7. (1) The National Assembly, shall, by a majority vote of all
its Members, elect its Speaker from the Members thereof. It shall
such other officers as it may deem necessary.
The election of the President and the Prime Minister shall precede all
other business following the election of the Speaker.cralaw
(2) A majority of the National Assembly shall constitute a quorum to do
business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may
the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such
as the National Assembly may provide.cralaw
(3) The National Assembly may determine the rules of its proceedings,
its Members for disorderly behavior, and with concurrence of two-thirds
of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member, but if the penalty is
this shall not exceed sixty days.cralaw
(4) The National Assembly shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and
from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its
judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any
shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered
Section 8. (1) Unless otherwise provided by law, each Member of the
Assembly shall receive an annual salary of sixty thousand pesos. The
of the National Assembly shall receive an annual salary of seventy-five
thousand pesos. No increase in salary shall take effect until after the
expiration of the term of the Members of the National Assembly
(2) The records and books of accounts of the National Assembly shall be
open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be
by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually the itemized
for each Member.cralaw
Section 9. A Member of the National Assembly shall, in all offenses
by not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest
his attendance at its sessions, and in going to and returning from the
same; but the National Assembly shall surrender the Member involved to
the custody of the law within twenty-four hours after its adjournment
a recess or its next session, otherwise such privilege shall cease upon
its failure to do so. A Member shall not be questioned or held liable
any other place for any speech or debate in the Assembly or in any
Section 10. A Member of the National Assembly shall not hold any other
office or employment in the government, or any subdivision, agency, or
instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled
during his tenure except that of Prime Minister or Member of the
Neither shall he be appointed to any civil office which may have been
or the emoluments thereof increased while he was a Member of the
Section 11. No Member of the National Assembly shall appear as counsel
before any court inferior to a court with appellate jurisdiction,
any court in any civil case wherein the government, or any subdivision,
agency, or instrumentality thereof is the adverse party, or before any
administrative body. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be
financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special
granted by, the government, or any subdivision, agency, or
thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation,
his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any
of the government for his pecuniary benefit.
Section 12. (1) There shall be a question hour at least once a month or
as often as the rules of the National Assembly may provide, which shall
be included in its agenda, during which the Prime Minister or any
may be required to appear and answer questions and interpellations by
of the National Assembly. Written questions shall be submitted to the
at least three days before a scheduled question hour. Interpellations
not be limited to the written questions, but may cover matters related
thereto. The agenda shall specify the subjects of the question hour.
the security of the State so requires and the Prime Minister so states
in writing, the question hour shall be conducted in executive session.
(2) The National Assembly or any of its committees may conduct
in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of
The rights of persons appearing in such inquiries shall be respected.cralaw
Section 13. (1) The National Assembly may withdraw its confidence from
the Prime Minister only by electing a successor by a majority vote of
its Members. No motion for the election of such successor shall be
and voted upon until after the lapse of three days from the submittal
(2) The Prime Minister may advise the President in writing to dissolve
the National Assembly whenever the need arises for a popular vote of
on fundamental issues, but not on a matter involving his own personal
Whereupon, the President shall dissolve the National Assembly not
than five days nor later than ten days from his receipt of the advice,
and call for an election on a date set by the Prime Minister which
not be earlier than forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the
date of such dissolution. However, no dissolution of the National
shall take place within nine months immediately preceding a regular
or within nine months immediately following any general election.cralaw
(3) In case of dissolution of the National Assembly or the termination
of its regular term, the incumbent Prime Minister and the Cabinet shall
continue to conduct the affairs of government until the new National
is convoked and a Prime Minister is elected and has qualified.cralaw
Sec. 14. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, no
shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by a majority of all
Members of the National Assembly.
(2) The National Assembly, by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members,
shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war.cralaw
Section 15. In times of war or other national emergency, the National
may by law authorize the Prime Minister, for a limited period and
to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary
and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner
by resolution of the National Assembly, such powers shall cease upon
Section 16. (1) The Prime Minister shall submit to the National
within thirty days from the opening of each regular session, as the
of the general appropriations bill, a budget of receipts based on
and proposed revenue measures, and of expenditures. The form, content,
and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law.
(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general
bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation
Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to
appropriation to which it relates.cralaw
(3) The procedure in approving appropriations for the National Assembly
shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for
departments and agencies.cralaw
(4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which
is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as
to by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding
proposal included therein.cralaw
(5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations;
however, the Prime Minister, the Speaker, the Chief Justice of the
Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may by law be
to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their
offices from saving in other items of their respective appropriations.cralaw
(6) If, by the end of the fiscal year, the National Assembly shall have
failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal
the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be
re-enacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general
bill is passed by the National Assembly.cralaw
Section 17. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable.
National Assembly shall evolve a progressive system of taxation.
(2) The National Assembly may by law authorize the Prime Minister to
within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and
as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and
dues, and other duties or imposts.cralaw
(3) Charitable institutions, churches, personages or convents
thereto, mosques and non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings
improvements actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious or
charitable purposes shall be exempt from taxation.cralaw
(4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the
of a majority of all the Members of the National Assembly.cralaw
Section 18. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in
of an appropriation made by law.
(2) No public money or property shall ever be appropriated, applied,
or used, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of
sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of
or for the use, benefit, or support of any priest, preacher, minister,
or other religious teacher or dignitary as such, except when such
preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to
any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium.cralaw
Section 19. (1) Every bill shall become a law unless it has passed
readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form
have been distributed to the Members three days before its passage,
when the Prime Minister certifies to the necessity of its immediate
to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a
no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be
immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal.
(2) No bill except those of local application shall be calendared
the prior recommendation of the Cabinet.cralaw
Section 20. (1) Every bill passed by the national Assembly shall,
it becomes a law, be presented to the Prime Minister. If he approves
same he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same
with his objections to the National Assembly. The bill may be
by the National Assembly and, if approved by two-thirds of all its
shall become a law. The Prime Minister shall act on every bill passed
the National Assembly within thirty days after the date of receipt
otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it.
(2) The Prime Minister shall have the power to veto any particular item
or items in appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall
not affect the item or items to which he does not object.
Prime Minister and the Cabinet
Section 1. The Executive power shall be exercised by the Prime Minister
with the assistance of the Cabinet. The Cabinet, headed by the Prime
shall consist of the heads of ministries as provided by law. The Prime
Minister shall be the head of the government.
Section 2. The Prime Minister and the cabinet shall be responsible to
National Assembly for the program of government and shall determine the
guidelines of national policy.
Section 3. The Prime Minister shall be elected by a majority of all the
Members of the National Assembly from among themselves.
Section 4. The Prime Minister shall appoint the members of the Cabinet
who shall be the heads of ministries at least a majority of whom shall
come from the National Assembly. Members of the Cabinet may be removed
at the discretion of the Prime Minister.
Section 5. (1) The Prime Minister shall appoint the Deputy Prime
from among the Members of the National Assembly. The Deputy Prime
shall head a ministry and shall perform such other functions as may be
assigned to him by the Prime Minister.
(2) The Prime Minister shall also appoint the Deputy Ministers who
perform such functions as may be assigned to them by law or by the
heads of ministries.cralaw
Section 6. The Prime Ministers and the Members of the Cabinet, on
office, shall take the following oath or affirmation :chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and
fulfill my duties as (name of position) of the Philippines, preserve
defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man and
consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God."
case of affirmation, the last sentence will be omitted)
Section 7. The salaries and emoluments of the Prime Minister and the
of the Cabinet shall be fixed by law which shall not be increased or
during their tenure of office. Until otherwise provided by law, the
Minister shall receive the same salary as that of the President.
Section 8. The Prime Minister and the Members of the cabinet shall be
to the provisions of sections ten and eleven of Article Eight hereof
may not appear as counsel before any court or administrative body, or
in the management of any business, or practice any profession.
Section 9. The Prime Minister or any Member of the Cabinet may resign
any cause without vacating his seat in the National Assembly.
Section 10. The Prime Minister shall, at the beginning of each regular
session of the National Assembly, and from time to time thereafter,
the program of government and recommend for the consideration of the
Assembly such measures as he may deem necessary and proper.
Section 11. The Prime Minister shall have control of all ministries.
Section 12. The Prime Minister shall be commander-in-chief of all armed
forces of the Philippines, and whenever it becomes necessary, he may
out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence,
insurrection, or rebellion. In case of invasion, or rebellion, or
danger thereof when the public safety requires, it he may suspend the
of the writ of habeas corpus, or place the Philippines or any part
under martial law.
Section 13. The Prime Minister shall appoint the heads of bureaus and
the officers of the armed forces of the Philippines from the rank of
general or commodore, and all other officers of the Government whose
are not herein otherwise provided for, and those whom he may be
by law to appoint. However, the National Assembly may by law vest in
of the cabinet, courts, heads of agencies, commissions, and boards the
power to appoint inferior officers in their respective offices.
Section 14. The Prime Minister may, except in cases of impeachment
reprieves, commutations, and pardons, remit fines and forfeitures after
final conviction, and with the concurrence of the National Assembly,
Section 15. The Prime Minister may contract and guarantee foreign and
loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines, subject to such
as may be provided by law.
Section 16. All powers vested in the President of the Philippines under
nineteen hundred and thirty-five Constitution and the laws of the land
which are not herein provided for or conferred upon any official shall
be deemed, and are hereby, vested in the Prime Minister, unless the
Assembly provides otherwise.
Section 1. The Judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and
in such inferior courts as may be established by law. The Batasang
shall have the power to define, prescribe and apportion the
of the various courts, but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its
over cases enumerated in Section five thereof.
Section 2. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice
fourteen Associate Justices. It may sit en banc or in two divisions.
(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, executive
or law shall be heard and decided by the Supreme Court en banc, and no
treaty, executive agreement, or law may be declared unconstitutional
the concurrence of at least ten Members. All other cases, which under
rules are required to be heard en banc, shall be decided with the
of at least eight Members.cralaw
(3) Cases heard by a division shall be decided with the concurrence of
at least five Members, but if such required number is not obtained, the
case shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no doctrine or principle
of law laid down by the Court in a decision rendered en banc or in a
may be modified or reversed except by the Court sitting en banc.cralaw
Section 3. (1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court
unless he is a natural born citizen of the Philippines, at least forty
years of age, and has for ten years or more been a judge of a court of
record or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.
(2) The Batasang Pambansa shall prescribe the qualifications of judges
of inferior courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless
he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and a member of the
Section 4. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of inferior
shall be appointed by the President.
Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Assign temporarily judges of inferior courts to other stations as
interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not last longer
six months without the consent of the judge concerned.
Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari,
mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas corpus.
Review and revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari,
as the law or the rules of court may provide, final judgments and
of inferior courts in:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty,
agreement, law, ordinance, or executive order or regulation is in
All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or
or any penalty imposed in relation thereto.cralaw
All cases in which the jurisdiction of any inferior court is in issue.cralaw
All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is death or life
All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved.cralaw
Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of
Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure in all
the admission to the practice of law, and the integration of the bar,
however, may be repealed, altered or supplemented by the Batasang
Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the
speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the
grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.cralaw
Appoint its officials and employees in accordance with the Civil
Section 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over
all courts and the personnel thereof.
Section 7. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of inferior
shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of
years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office.
The Supreme Court shall have the power to discipline judges of inferior
courts and, by a vote of at least eight Members, order their dismissal.
Section 8. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted
it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation
before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of opinion of
Court. Any Member dissenting from a decision shall state the reasons
his dissent. The same requirement shall be observed by all inferior
Section 9. Every decision of a court of record shall clearly and
state the facts and the law on which it is based. The Rules of Court
govern the promulgation of minute resolutions.
Section 10. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate
of the Supreme Court, and of judges of inferior courts shall be fixed
law, which shall not be decreased during their continuance in office.
the Batasang Pambansa shall provide otherwise, the Chief Justice shall
receive an annual salary of seventy-five thousand pesos, and each
Justice, sixty thousand pesos.
Section 11. (1) Upon the effectivity of this Constitution, the maximum
period within which a case or matter shall be decided or resolved from
the date of its submission, shall be eighteen months for the Supreme
unless reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for all inferior
courts, and three months for all other inferior courts.
(2) With respect to the Supreme Court and other collegiate appellate
when the applicable maximum period shall have lapsed without the
of the corresponding decision or resolution, because the necessary vote
cannot be had, the judgment, order, or resolution appealed from shall
deemed affirmed except in those cases where a qualified majority is
and in appeals from judgments of conviction in criminal cases, and in
special civil actions and proceedings for habeas corpus, the petition
such cases shall be deemed dismissed, and a certification to this
signed by the Chief Magistrate of the court shall be issued and a copy
thereof attached to the record of the case.cralaw
Section 12. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the
of each regular session of the Batasang Pambansa, submit to the
the Prime Minister, and the Batasang Pambansa an annual report on the
and activities of the Judiciary.
Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the
are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barrios.
Section 2. The Batasang Pambansa shall enact a local government code
may not be thereafter amended except by a majority vote of all its
defining a more responsive and accountable local government structure
an effective system of recall, allocating among the different local
units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and providing for
the qualifications, election and removal, term, salaries, powers,
and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the
and operation of the local units. However, any change in the existing
of local government shall not take effect until ratified by a majority
of the votes cast in a plebiscite called for the purpose.
Section 3. No province, city, municipality, or barrio may be created,
merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered except in
with the criteria established in the local government code, and subject
to the approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the
unit or units affected.
Section 4. (1) Provinces with respect to component cities and
with respect to component barrios, shall ensure that the acts of their
component units are within the scope of their assigned powers and
Highly urbanized cities, as determined by standards established in the
local government code shall be independent of the province.
(2) Local government units may group themselves, or consolidate or
their efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial
Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create
own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, subject to limitations as may
be provided by law.
Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions shall be the Civil Service
the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
Section 2. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Chairman and each
of a Constitutional Commission shall receive an annual salary of sixty
thousand pesos, and fifty thousand pesos, respectively, which shall not
be decreased during their continuance in office.
Section 3. No Member of the Constitutional Commission shall, during his
tenure in office, engage in the practice of any profession or in the
of any business, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in
any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by, the
or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, thereof, including
owned or controlled corporations.
Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials
and employees in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
The Civil Service Commission
Section 1. (1) The Civil Service embraces every branch, agency,
and instrumentality of the government, including every government-
or controlled corporation. It shall be administered by an independent
Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who
be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their
are at least thirty-five years of age and holders of a college degree,
and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the
immediately preceding their appointment. The Chairman and the
shall be appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of seven years
reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, one shall hold
for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years.
Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of
term of the predecessor.
(2) The Commissioner shall, subject to such limitations as may be
by law, established a career service and adopt measures to promote
efficiency, and integrity in the Civil Service.cralaw
Section 2. Appointments in the Civil Service, except as to those which
are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical in
nature, shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be
as far as practicable by competitive examination.
Section 3. No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be
or dismissed except for cause provided by law.
Section 4. (1) No elective official shall be eligible for appointment
any office or position during his term of office.
(2) No candidate who lost an election shall be eligible for appointment
or reappointment to any office in the government, or in any
or controlled corporation, within one year following such election.cralaw
Section 5. No officer or employee in the Civil Service, including
of the armed forces, shall engage directly or indirectly in any
political activity or take part in any election, except to vote.
Section 6. The National Assembly shall provide for the standardization
of compensation of government officials and employees, including those
in government-owned and controlled corporations, taking into account
nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications
for, the positions concerned.
The Commission on Elections
Section 1. (1) There shall be an independent Commission on Elections
of a Chairman and eight Commissioners who shall be natural-born
of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least
years of age and holders of college degree. However, a majority
including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have
been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime
Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the
first appointed, three shall hold office for seven years, three for
years, and the last three for three years. Appointments to any vacancy
shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.cralaw
Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall have the following powers
Enforce and administer all laws relative to the conduct of elections.
Be the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections, returns,
qualifications of all Members of the National Assembly and elective
and city officials. provincial and city officials.cralaw
Decide, save those involving the right to vote, administrative
affecting elections, including the determination of the number and
of polling places, the appointment of election officials and
and the registration of voters.cralaw
Deputize, with the consent or at the instance of the Prime Minister,
enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including
the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the purpose of ensuring free,
orderly, and honest elections.cralaw
Register and accredit political parties subject to the provisions of
Recommend to the National Assembly effective measures to minimize
expenses and prohibit all forms of election frauds and malpractices,
opportunism, guest or nuisance candidacy, or other similar acts.cralaw
Submit to the President, Prime Minister, and the National Assembly a
on the conduct and manner of each election.cralaw
Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.cralaw
Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in three
All election cases may be heard and decided by divisions, except
involving Members of the National Assembly, which shall be heard and
en banc. Unless otherwise provided by law, all election cases shall be
decided within ninety days from the date of their submission for
Section 4. The Commission may recommend to the Prime Minister the
of, or any other disciplinary action against, any officer or employee
has deputized, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its
order, or directive.
Section 5. The enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits
the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of
all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the
or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including any
or controlled corporation, may be supervised or regulated by the
during the election period for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly,
Section 6. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases,
election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election
shall end thirty days thereafter.
Section 7. No pardon, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation
the law or rules and regulations concerning elections be granted
the recommendation of the Commission.
Section 8. A political party shall be entitled to accreditation by the
Commission if, in the immediately preceding election, such party has
at least the third highest number of votes cast in the constituency to
which it seeks accreditation. No religious sect shall be registered as
a political party and no political party which seeks to achieve its
through violence or subversion shall be entitled to accreditation.
Section 9. (1) Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free
from any form of harassment and discrimination.
(2) No party or candidate shall have membership in the registration
board of election inspectors, board of canvassers, or other similar
Section 10. No elective public officer may change his political party
during his term of office and no candidate for any elective public
may change his political party affiliation within six months
preceding or following an election.
Section 11. Any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be
to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty
days from his receipt of a copy thereof.
Commission on Audit
Section 1. (1) There shall be an independent Commission on Audit
of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens
of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least
years of age and certified public accountants or members of the
Bar for at least ten years.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime
Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the
first appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for
years, and the third for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall
be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.cralaw
Section 2. The Commission on Audit shall have the following powers and
Examine, audit, and settle, in accordance with law and regulations, all
accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures
uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining
the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or
including government-owned and controlled corporations; keep the
accounts of the government and, for such period as may be provided by
preserve the vouchers pertaining thereto; and promulgate accounting and
auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention of
unnecessary, excessive, or extravagant expenditures or use of funds and
Decide any case brought before it within sixty days from the date of
submission for resolution. Unless otherwise provided by law, any
order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court
on certiorari by the aggrieved party within days from his receipt of a
Submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the National Assembly,
within the time fixed by law, an annual financial report of the
its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including
and controlled corporations, and recommend measures necessary to
their efficiency and effectiveness. It shall submit such other reports
as may be required by law.cralaw
Perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law.cralaw
of Public Officers
Section 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and
shall serve with the highest degree of responsibility, integrity,
and efficiency, and shall remain accountable to the people.
Section 2. The President, the Justices of the Supreme Court, and the
of the Constitutional Commissions shall be removed from office on
for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution,
bribery, other high crimes, or graft and corruption.
Section 3. The National Assembly shall have the exclusive power to
try, decide all cases of impeachment. Upon the filing of a verified
the National Assembly may initiate impeachment by a vote of at least
of all its Members. No official shall be convicted without the
of at least two-thirds of all the members thereof. When the National
sits in impeachment cases, its Members shall be on oath or affirmation.
Section 4. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall be limited to removal
from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or
profit under the Republic of the Philippines, but the party convicted
nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution, trial, and
in accordance with law.
Section 5. The National Assembly shall create a special court, to be
as Sandiganbayan, which shall have jurisdiction over criminal and civil
cases involving graft and corrupt practices and such other offenses
by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned
controlled corporations, in relation to their office as may be
Section 6. The National Assembly shall create an office of the
to be known as Tanodbayan, which shall receive and investigate
relative to public office, including those in government-owned or
corporations, make appropriate recommendations, and in case of failure
of justice as defined by law, file and prosecute the corresponding
civil, or administrative case before the proper court or body.
National Economy and the Patrimony of the Nation
Section 1. The National Assembly shall establish a National Economic
Development Authority, to be headed by the Prime Minister, which shall
recommend to the National Assembly, after consultation with the private
sector, local government units, and other appropriate public agencies,
continuing, coordinated, and fully integrated social and economic plans
Section 2. The State shall regulate or prohibit private monopolies when
the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade
or unfair competition shall be allowed.
Section 3. The National Assembly shall, upon recommendation of the
Economic and Development Authority, reserve to citizens of the
or to corporations or associations wholly owned by such citizens,
traditional areas of investments when the national interest so dictates.
Section 4. The National Assembly shall not, except by general law,
for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations,
unless such corporations are owned or controlled by the government or
subdivision or instrumentality thereof.
Section 5. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of
for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to
of the Philippines at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is
owned by such citizens, nor shall such franchise, certificate, or
be exclusive in character or for a longer period then fifty years.
shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition
that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the
Assembly when the public interest so requires. The State shall
equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The
of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility
shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital thereof.
Section 6. The State may, in the interest of the national welfare or
establish and operate industries and means of transportation and
and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership
and other private enterprises to be operated by the government.
Section 7. In times of national emergency when the public interest so
the State may temporarily take over or direct the operation of any
owned public utility or business affected with public interest.
Section 8. All lands of public domain, waters, minerals, coal,
and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries,
and other natural resources of the Philippines belong to the State.
the exception of agricultural, industrial or commercial, residential,
resettlement lands of the public domain, natural resources shall not be
alienated, and no license, concession, or lease for the exploration, or
utilization of any of the natural resources shall be granted for a
exceeding twenty-five years, except as to water rights for irrigation,
water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than development of
power, in which cases, beneficial use may by the measure and the limit
of the grant.
Section 9. The disposition, exploration, development, exploitation, or
utilization of any of the natural resources of the Philippines shall be
limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations or
at least sixty per centum of the capital which is owned by such
The National Assembly, in the national interest, may allow such
corporations or associations to enter into service contracts for
technical, management, or other forms of assistance with any foreign
or entity for the exploration, or utilization of any of the natural
Existing valid and binding service contracts for financial, technical,
management, or other forms of assistance are hereby recognized as such.
Section 10. Lands of the public domain are classified into
industrial, or commercial, residential, resettlement, mineral, timber
forest, and grazing lands, and such other classes as may be provided by
Section 11. The National Assembly taking into account conservation,
and developmental requirements of the natural resources shall determine
by law the size of lands of the public domain which may be developed,
or acquired by, or leased to, any qualified individual, corporation or
association, and the conditions therefor. No private corporation or
may hold alienable lands of the public domain except by lease not to
one thousand hectares in area; nor may any citizen hold such lands by
in excess of five hundred hectares or acquire by purchase or homestead
in excess of twenty-four hectares. No private corporation or
may hold by lease, concession, license, or permit timber or forest
and other timber or forest resources in excess of one hundred thousand
hectares; however, such area may be increased by the National Assembly
upon recommendation of the National Economic and Development Authority.
Section 12. The State shall formulate and implement an agrarian reform
program aimed at emancipating the tenant from the bondage of the soil
achieving the goals enunciated in this Constitution.
Section 13. The National Assembly may authorize, upon payment of just
the expropriation of public lands to be subdivided into small lots and
conveyed at cost to deserving citizens.
Section 14. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private land
be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or
qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain.
Section 15. Any provision of paragraph one, Section 14, Article VIII
of this Article notwithstanding, the Prime Minister may enter into
treaties or agreement as the national welfare and interest may require.
Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue,
a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and
Section 2. The Interim National Assembly may by law adopt a new name
the country, a national anthem, and a national seal, which shall all be
truly reflective and symbolic of ideas, history, and traditions of the
people. Thereafter the national name, anthem, and seal so adopted shall
not be subject to change except by constitutional amendment.
Section 3. (1) This Constitution shall be officially promulgated in
and in Pilipino, and translated into each dialect spoken by over fifty
thousand people, and into Spanish and Arabic. In case of conflict, the
English text shall prevail.
(2) The National Assembly shall take steps towards the development and
formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.cralaw
(3) Until otherwise provided by law, English and Pilipino shall be the
Section 4. All public officers and employees and members of the armed
shall take an oath to support and defend the Constitution.
Section 5. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall
additional or double compensation unless specifically authorized by
nor accept, without the consent of the National Assembly, any present,
emolument, office or title of any kind from any foreign state.
Section 6. No salary or any form of emolument of any public officer or
employee, including constitutional officers, shall be exempt from
of income tax.
Section 7. (1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be
to citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations wholly
and managed by such citizens.
(2) The governing body of every entity engaged in commercial
shall i all cases be controlled by citizens of the Philippines.cralaw
Section 8. (1) All educational institutions shall be under the
of and subject to regulation by the State. The State shall establish
maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education
to goals of national development.
(2) All institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom.cralaw
(3) The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all
(4) All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of
teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal
discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency.cralaw
(5) The State shall maintain a system of free public elementary
and, in areas where finances permit, establish and maintain a system of
free public education at least up to the secondary level.cralaw
(6) The State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to
citizens and out-of-school youth, and create and maintain scholarships
for poor and deserving students.cralaw
(7) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious
orders, mission boards, and charitable organizations, shall be owned
by citizens of the Philippines, or corporations or associations sixty
centum of the capita;l of which is owned by such citizens. The control
and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in
of the Philippines. No education institution shall be established
for aliens, and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third
the enrollment of any school. The provisions of this subsection shall
apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their
dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign
(8) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, and
without cost to them and the government, religion shall be taught to
children or wards in public elementary and high schools as may be
Section 9. (1) The State shall promote scientific research and
The advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the
(2) Filipino culture shall be preserved and developed for national
Arts and letters shall be under the patronage of the State.cralaw
(3) The exclusive right to inventions, writings, and artistic creations
shall be secured to investors, authors and artists for a limited
Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be
for specially gifted children.cralaw
Section 10. It shall be the responsibility of the State to achieve and
maintain population levels most conducive to the national welfare.
Section 11. The State shall consider the customs, traditions, beliefs,
and interests of national cultural communities in the formulation and
of State policies.
Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain an integrated
police force whose organization, administration, and operation, shall
provided by law.
Section 13. (1) The armed forces of the Philippines shall include a
army composed of all able-bodied citizens of the Philippines who shall
undergo military training as may be provided by law. It shall keep a
force necessary for the security of the State.
(2) The citizen army shall have a corps of trained officers and men in
active duty status as may be necessary to train, service, and keep it
reasonable preparedness at all times.cralaw
Section 14. The National Assembly shall establish a central monetary
which shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking,
credit to achieve national economic objectives. It shall have
authority over the operation of banks and exercise such regulatory
as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and
other institutions performing similar functions. Until the National
shall otherwise provide, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating
under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority.
Section 15. The separation of the church and the State shall be
Section 16. The State may not be sued without its consent.
Section 1. (1) Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may
be proposed by the National Assembly upon a vote of three-fourths of
its Members, or by a constitutional convention.
(2) The National Assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its
call a constitutional convention, or by a majority vote of all its
submit the question of calling such a convention to the electorate in
Section 2. Any amendment to or revision of this Constitution shall be
when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in the plebiscite which
be held not later than three months after the approval of such
Section 1. There shall be an Interim National Assembly which shall
immediately upon the ratification of this Constitution and shall
until the Members of the regular National Assembly shall have been
and shall have assumed office following an election called for the
by the Interim National Assembly. Except as otherwise provided in this
Constitution, the Interim National Assembly shall have the same powers
and its Members shall have the same functions, responsibilities,
privileges, and disqualifications as the regular National Assembly and
the Members thereof.
Section 2. The Members of the Interim National Assembly shall be the
President and Vice-President of the Philippines, those who served as
of the nineteen hundred and seventy-one Constitutional Convention,
Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall
in writing to the Commission on Elections within thirty days after the
ratification of this Constitution their option to serve therein, and
Delegates to the nineteen hundred and seventy-one Constitutional
who have opted to serve therein by voting affirmatively for this
They may take their oath of office before any officer authorized to
oaths and who qualify thereto, after the ratification of this
Section 3. (1) The incumbent President of the Philippines shall
convene the Interim National Assembly and shall preside over its
until the interim Speaker shall have been elected. He shall continue to
exercise his powers and prerogatives under the nineteen hundred and
Constitution and the powers vested in the President and the Prime
under this Constitution until he calls upon the Interim National
to elect the interim President and interim Prime Minister who shall
exercise their respective powers vested by this Constitution.
(2) All proclamations, orders, decrees, instructions, and acts
issued, or done by the incumbent President shall be part of the law of
the land, and shall remain valid, legal, binding, and effective even
the lifting of the Martial Law or the ratification of this Constitution
unless modified, revoked, or superseded by subsequent proclamations,
decrees, instructions, or unless expressly or implicitly modified or
by the regular National Assembly.cralaw
Section 4. The interim Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall exercise
the powers and functions, and discharge the responsibilities of the
Prime Minister and his Cabinet, and shall be subject to the same
provided in this Constitution.
Section 5. The Interim National Assembly shall give priority to
for the orderly transition from the Presidential to the Parliamentary
the reorganization of the government, the eradication of graft and
programs for the effective maintenance of peace and order, the
of declared agrarian reforms, the standardization of compensation of
employees, and such other measures as shall bridge the gap between the
rich and the poor.
Section 6. The Interim National Assembly shall reapportion the Assembly
seats in accordance with Article Eight, Section two, of this
Section 7. All existing laws not inconsistent with this Constitution
remain operative until amended, modified, or repealed by the National
Section 8. All courts existing at the time of the ratification of this
Constitution shall continue and exercise their jurisdiction, until
provided by law in accordance with this Constitution, and all cases
in said courts shall be held, tried, and determined under the laws then
in force. The provisions of the existing Rules of Court not
with this Constitution shall remain operative unless amended, modified,
or repealed by the Supreme Court or the National Assembly.
Section 9. All officials and employees in the existing government of
Republic of the Philippines shall continue in office until otherwise
by law or decreed by the incumbent President of the Philippines, but
officials whose appointments are by this Constitution vested in the
Minister shall vacate their respective offices upon the appointment and
qualification of their successors.
Section 10. The incumbent Members of the Judiciary may continue in
until they reach the age of seventy years, unless sooner replaced in
with the preceding section hereof.
Section 11. The rights and privileges granted to citizens of the United
States or to corporations or associations owned or controlled by such
under the ordinance appended to the nineteen hundred and thirty-five
shall automatically terminate on the third day of July, nineteen
and seventy-four. Titles to private lands acquired by such persons
such date shall be valid as against other private persons only.
Section 12. All treaties, executive agreements, and contracts entered
by the government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality
including government-owned or controlled corporations are hereby
as legal, valid and binding. When the national interest so requires,
incumbent President of the Republic or the interim Prime Minister may
all contracts, concessions, permits, or other forms of privileges for
exploration, exploitation, development, or utilization of natural
entered into, granted, issued, or acquired before the ratification of
Section 13. Any public officer or employee separated from the service
a result of the reorganization effected under this Constitution shall,
if entitled under the laws then in force, receive the retirement and
benefits accruing thereunder.
Section 14. All records, equipment, buildings, facilities, and other
of any office or body abolished or reorganized under this Constitution
shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers,
and responsibilities substantially pertain.
Section 15. The Interim National Assembly, upon special call by the
Prime Minister may, by a majority vote of all its Members propose
to this Constitution. Such amendment shall take effect when ratified in
accordance with Article Sixteen hereof.
Section 16. This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its
by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite called for the purpose
and, except as herein provided, shall supersede the Constitution of
hundred and thirty-five and all amendments thereto.
1973 Constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973 in accordance with
Proclamation No. 1102 issued by President Ferdinand E. Marcos].